[...] in "Snow White". I am not going to say to cut to close-ups
of one character and then another; that is too elementary. I
hope we can get a little newer approach -- a little better understanding
of how we might present an idea, so when we do have more than
one character in a scene, it becomes a matter of intense study
to state that idea properly. I am not speaking of layout staging,
which is a simple enough problem. I mean pointing the idea just
exactly as it should be pointed. We must discover new ways of
staging an idea, not by drawing, but by thinking it out more
thoroughly and presenting the idea a little clearer, not by
layout staging, but by an understanding and fundamental approach
to that point where the idea must be put over. Cutting, naturally,
is a distinct aid to staging. By its use we are able to eliminate
from the mind of the audience anything that is less important
than the particular point we are putting over at the time.
We all know the trick of cutting to close-up. Five or six
years ago we didn't know that trick in cartooning. I want now,
briefly, to look into the future, five years from now.
Q. What was the reason for not using close-ups in the old
days? Was it that they didn't know about the use of close-ups,
or were the animators afraid of the drawling? Weren't they capable
of doing it?
A. We were not alive, in those days, to the necessity for
development within our medium. We thought we knew how to make
pictures funny, and only in the past three or four years has
there been any improvement in what I call the Camera Department.
We didn't worry about staging in those days. Our gags were
things you couldn't miss, anyway.
The technique of the camera on closer fields was a development
after we realized the necessity for close-ups. The first close-ups
that crept in were drawn to a huge size; then it became necessary
to move the camera.
Q. It was not long ago in live action pictures they discovered
they could cut off the figure and it would not look odd. We
still have not learned that we can go out of the field with
arms, and legs, etc. We have always thought that the close-ups
had to be subtle still things, or the scene had to be done in
a long shot. Now that we have the camera that can come down
on the scene, we can take violent action and put a close-up
on it. [...]